International Day Against Nuclear Tests: top five most dangerous grounds of the world
On August 29 the International Day Against Nuclear Tests is celebrated around the world. The role of Kazakhstan in this event has key character, at the 64th session of the United Nations General Assembly in 2009 at the initiative of Kazakhstan this day has been approved. Till today many countries of the world adhere to policy of refusal of nuclear weapon, however it was not always. Today we suggest to remember the most terrible and dangerous grounds for all history of mankind where nuclear weapons tests were once conducted, BNews.kz correspondent reported.
If to speak about the most known grounds which have brought the greatest loss to mankind, then the Semipalatinsk nuclear ground should be noted. The first nuclear weapons test has happened on its territory on August 1, 1949. Later, the Soviet Union made here over 400 more nuclear tests general power of which by 2500 times has exceeded the power of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Then local inhabitants, living practically in epicenter of events, were the involuntary victims. Protests, meetings and demonstrations haven't brought any result.
Radiation exposure which was received by people and animals promoted death and even now, in so many years, the local population suffers consequences of those events. The result is - the children born with deviations, genetic diseases and various problems with health, beginning from weak immunity, finishing with oncology. 40 years of tests and "experience" over people have ruined not one destiny and have done irreplaceable harm to an ecosystem. Only in 1991 the ground has been closed by the Decree of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev that has put an end to tests of the Soviet nuclear and hydrogen weapon.
In the Soviet Union, besides Semipalatinsk Test Site known for a lot of people, there were also others – one of them was on the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya.
Unlike Semipalatinsk, 400 locals have been moved on the coast of the island before tests, but a loss of the local territory of test have rendered enormous. The ground has been created in 1954 for test of all types of nuclear weapon: explosions happened on the earth, underground, on water, under water and in the atmosphere. The first underwater explosion has taken place on September 21, 1955. In total for years of tests 135 nuclear explosions have been conducted here, including the largest thermonuclear 58-megaton "Tsar bomb" in the history (on power it is about 10 thousand bombs dropped on Hiroshima) has been blown. Then the seismic wave has three times rounded Earth. Since 1990 tests on the ground aren't carried out, however now it represents scientific center where there take place researches of use and storage of nuclear weapon. To get to Novaya Zemlya, fans of extreme tourism will need the special admission.
The Nevada test ground is in 105 kilometers from Las Vegas and occupies the space in 3,5 square km.
Today it is also one of the largest once operating grounds of the world. Date of its opening is considered as January 27, 1951 when here the first bomb has been detonated. Also, as well as on the Novaya Zemlya, explosions happened on the earth, in the atmosphere and in water. Tests were promoted by an arid climate and low population density. In total here have carried out more than 1000 various explosions. Even then, in the years of tests, the area became one of favourite for tourists who came to look from different corners of the world at nuclear "mushrooms". Underground tests on the ground continued up to September, 1992, now nuclear explosions aren't made here, however the administration monthly organizes excursions. Tourists are taken along a special route. People can see the real test mines, funnels from explosions of nuclear charges and the remained models of structures by which determined force of destructions after explosion.
The following one in our list of dangerous grounds the ground on the tropical atoll Mururoa in France was located. The island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean has been chosen after Algeria has won the independence, earlier France made tests exactly there. The first test on the atoll Mururoa has taken place in 1966 - the charge was blown up in special mines up to 800 meters in depth.
China has carried out the majority of the tests on the Lob-Nor ground in due time. The area of Lob-Nor is group of the salty lakes located at the height about 780 meters. Once it was the picturesque place with the most beautiful nature and the habitat of rare species of animals. Now saturated flora and fauna has turned into the desert. They are the consequences of nuclear tests. The first explosion was made here in 1964, it was test of the hydrogen bomb lowered from the plane. Till 1996 on the ground 45 nuclear tests which are considered as the dirtiest on nuclear infection have been carried out. And the test 596 made in 1964 has made China the nuclear power. Since then Lob-Nor is considered "a dead zone".